2006 International Building Code

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The scope of this new code includes all buildings except one- and two-family dwellings of three stories or less, and townhomes.



It features time-tested safety concepts, structural, and fire and life safety provisions covering means of egress, interior finish requirements, comprehensive roof provisions, seismic engineering provisions, innovative construction technology, occupancy classifications, and the latest industry standards in material design. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs.

Weight 3.5200
ISBN 1-58001-251-5
Page Count 638
Author International Code Council
Publisher International Code Council
Dimensions 8-1/2 x 11

The scope of this new code includes all buildings except one- and two-family dwellings of three stories or less, and townhomes.

It features time-tested safety concepts, structural, and fire and life safety provisions covering means of egress, interior finish requirements, comprehensive roof provisions, seismic engineering provisions, innovative construction technology, occupancy classifications, and the latest industry standards in material design. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION, 1
Section
101. General, 1
102. Applicability, 1
103. Department of Building Safety, 2
104. Duties and Powers of Building Official, 2
105. Permits, 3
106. Construction Documents, 5
107. Temporary Structures and Uses, 6
108. Fees, 6
109. Inspections, 7
110. Certificate of Occupancy, 7
111. Service Utilities, 8
112. Board of Appeals, 8
113. Volations, 8
114. Stop Work Order, 9
115. Unsafe Structures and Equipment, 9
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS, 11
Section
201. General, 11
202. Definitions, 11
CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION, 23
Section
301. General, 23
302. Classification, 23
303. Assembly Group A, 23
304. Business Group B, 24
305. Educational Group E, 24
306. Factory Group F, 24
307. High-hazard Group H, 25
308. Institutional Group I, 33
309. Mercantile Group M, 34
310. Residential Group R, 34
311. Storage Group S, 35
312. Utility and Miscellaneous Group U, 35
CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY, 37
Section
401. Scope, 37
402. Covered Mall Buildings, 37
403. High-rise Buildings, 40
404. Atriums, 41
405. Underground Buildings, 42
406. Motor-vehic1e-related Occupancies, 43
407. Group 1-2, 47
408. Group 1-3, 48
409. Motion Picture Projection Rooms, 49
410. Stages and Platforms, 50
411. Special Amusement Buildings, 52
412. Aircraft-related Occupancies, 52 413. Combustible Storage, 54
414. Hazardous Materials, 55
415. Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5, 58
416. Application of Flammable Finishes, 71
417. Drying Rooms, 72
418. Organic Coatings, 72
419. Group I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, 72
420. Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms, 72
CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS, 75
Section
501. General, 75
502. Definitions, 75
503. General Height and Area Limitations, 75
504. Height, 75
505. Mezzanines, 77
506. Area Modifications, 78
507. Unlimited Area Buildings, 79
508. Mixed Use and Occupancy, 80
509. Special Provisions, 82
CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION, 85
Section
601. General, 85
602. Construction Classification, 85
603. Combustible Material in Type I and II Construction, 86
CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION, 89
Section
701. General, 89
702. Definitions, 89
703. Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests, 90
704. Exterior Walls, 91
705. Fire Walls, 94
706. Fire Barriers, 96
707. Shaft Enclosures, 97
708. Fire Partitions, 100
709. Smoke Barriers, 101
710. Smoke Partitions, 101
711. Horizontal Assemblies, 102
712. Penetrations, 102
713. Fire-resistant Joint Systems, 105
714. Fire-resistance Rating of Structural Members, 105
715. Opening Protectives, 106
716. Ducts and Air Transfer Openings, 110
717. Concealed Spaces, 113
718. Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster, 115
719. Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials, 115
720. Prescriptive Fire Resistance, 116
721. Calculated Fire Resistance, 136
CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES, 165
Section
801. General, 165
802. Definitions, 165
803. Wall and Ceiling Finishes, 165
804. Interior Floor Finish, 167
805. Combustible Materials in Type I and II Construction, 168
806. Decorative Materials and Trim, 168
CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS, 171
Section
901. General, 171
902. Definitions, 171
903. Automatic Sprinkler Systems, 174
904. Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing Systems, 178
905. Standpipe Systems, 180
906. Portable Fire Extinguishers, 182
907. Fire Alarm and Detection Systems, 182
908. Emergency Alarm Systems, 189
909. Smoke Control Systems, 190
910. Smoke and Heat Vents, 197
911. Fire Command Center, 199
912. Fire Department Connections, 199
CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS, 201
Section
1001. Administration, 201
1002. Definitions, 201
1003. General Means of Egress, 202
1004. Occupant Load, 203
1005. Egress Width, 204
1006. Means of Egress Illumination, 205
1007. Accessible Means of Egress, 205
1008. Doors, Gates and Turnstiles, 207
1009. Stairways, 212
1010. Ramps, 214
1011. Exit Signs, 216
1012. Handrails, 216
1013. Guards, 217
1014. ExitAccess, 218
1015. Exit and Exit Access Doorways, 220
1016. Travel Distance, 221
1017. Corridors, 221
1018. Exits, 223
1019. Number of Exits and Continuity, 223
1020. Vertical Exit Enclosures, 223
1021. Exit Passageways, 225
1022. Horizontal Exits, 225
1023. Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways, 226
1024. Exit Discharge, 227
1025. Assembly, 228
1026. Emergency Escape and Rescue, 232
CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITY, 235
Section
1101. General, 235
1102. Definitions, 235
1103. Scoping Requirements, 235
1104. Accessible Route, 236
1105. AccessibleEntrances, 237
1106. Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities, 238
1107. Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units, 238
1108. Special Occupancies, 241
1109. Other Features and Facilities, 243
1110. Signage, 247
CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT, 249
Section
1201 General, 249
1202 Definitions, 249
1203 Ventilation, 249
1204 Temperature Control, 250
1205 Lighting, 250
1206 Yards or Courts, 251
1207 Sound Transmission, 251
1208 Interior Space Dimensions, 251
1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces, 252
1210 Surrounding Materials, 252
CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY, 253
Section
1301 General, 253
CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS, 255
Section
1401 General, 255
1402 Definitions, 255
1403 Performance Requirements, 255
1404 Materials, 256
1405 Installation of Wall Coverings, 256
1406 Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls, 260
1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM), 261
CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES, 263
Section
1501 General, 263
1502 Definitions, 263
1503 Weather Protection, 263
1504 Performance Requirements, 264
1505 Fire Classification, 265
1506 Materials, 265
1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings, 266
1508 Roof Insulation, 274
1509 Rooftop Structures, 275
1510 Reroofing, 276
CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN, 277
Section
1601 General, 277
1602 Definitions and Notations, 277
1603 Construction Documents, 278
1604 General Design Requirements, 279
1605 Load Combinations, 282
1606 Dead Loads, 283
1607 Live Loads, 284
1608 Snow Loads, 289
1609 Wind Loads, 289
1610 Soil Lateral Loads, 299
1611 Rain Loads, 299
1612 Flood Loads, 300
1613 Earthquake Loads, 302
CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS, 327
Section
1701 General, 327
1702 Definitions, 327
1703 Approvals, 328
1704 Special Inspections, 328
1705 Statement of Special Inspections, 336
1706 Contractor Responsibility, 338
1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance, 338
1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance, 339
1709 Structural Observations, 340
1710 Design Strengths of Materials, 340
1711 Alternative Test Procedure, 340
1712 Test Safe Load, 340
1713 In-situ Load Tests, 340
1714 Preconstruction Load Tests, 341
1715 Material and Test Standards, 342
CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS, 343
Section
1801 General, 343
1802 Foundation and Soils Investigations, 343
1803 Excavation, Grading and Fill, 344
1804 Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils, 345
1805 Footings and Foundations, 345
1806 Retaining Walls, 357
1807 Dampproofing and Waterproofing, 357
1808 Pier and Pile Foundations, 358
1809 Driven Pile Foundations, 363
1810 Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations, 366
1811 Composite Piles, 370
1812 Pier Foundations, 370
CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE, 373
Section
1901 General, 373
1902 Definitions, 373
1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials, 373
1904 Durability Requirements, 373
1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing, 375
1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and Construction Joints, 375
1907 Details of Reinforcement, 376
1908 Modifications to ACI 318 , 376
1909 Structural Plain Concrete, 379
1910 Minimum Slab Provisions, 380
1911 Anchorage to Concrete-Allowable Stress Design, 380
1912 Anchorage to Concrete-Strength Design, 380
1913 Shotcrete, 381
1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete, 382
1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns, 382
CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM, 385
Section
2001 General, 385
2002 Materials, 385
CHAPTER 21 MASONRY, 387
Section
2101 General, 387
2102 Definitions and Notations, 387
2103 Masonry Construction Materials, 391
2104 Construction, 394
2105 Quality Assurance, 397
2106 Seismic Design, 398
2107 Allowable Stress Design, 400
2108 Strength Design of Masonry, 400
2109 Empirical Design of Masonry, 401
2110 Glass Unit Masonry, 407
2111 Masonry Fireplaces, 408
2112 Masonry Heaters, 411
2113 Masonry Chimneys, 411
CHAPTER 22 STEEL, 417
Section
2201 General, 417
2202 Definitions, 417
2203 Identification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes, 417
2204 Connections, 417
2205 Structural Steel, 417
2206 Steel Joists, 418
2207 Steel Cable Structures, 418
2208 Steel Storage Racks, 419
2209 Cold-formed Steel, 419
2210 Cold-formed Steel Light-framed Construction, 419
CHAPTER 23 WOOD, 421
Section
2301 GeneraL, 421
2302 Definitions, 421
2303 Minimum Standards and Quality, 422
2304 General Construction Requirements, 426
2305 General Design Requirements for Lateral-force-resisting Systems, 435
2306 Allowable Stress Design, 442
2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design, 449
2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction, 449
CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING, 495
Section
2401 General, 495
2402 Definitions, 495
2403 General Requirements for Glass, 495
2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and Dead Loads on Glass, 495
2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights, 497
2406 Safety Glazing, 498
2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards, 500
2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities, 500
2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistway, 500
CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD AND PLASTER, 501
Section
2501 General, 501
2502 Definitions, 501
2503 Inspection, 501
2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies, 501
2505 Shear Wall Construction, 501
2506 Gypsum Board Materials, 502
2507 Lathing and Plastering, 502
2508 Gypsum Construction, 502
2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and Water Closets, 503
2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement Plaster (Stucco), 504
2511 Interior Plaster, 504
2512 Exterior Plaster, 505
2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster, 505
CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC, 507
Section
2601 General, 507
2602 Definitions, 507
2603 Foam Plastic Insulation, 507
2604 Interior Finish and Trim, 510
2605 Plastic Veneer, 511
2606 Light-transmitting Plastics, 511
2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels, 512
2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing, 513
2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels, 513
2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing, 514
2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs, 514
CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL, 517
Section
2701 GeneraL, 517
2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems, 517
CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, 519
Section
2801 GeneraL, 519
CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS, 521
Section
2901 General, 521
2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities, 521
CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS, 525
Section
3001 General, 525
3002 Hoistway Enclosures, 525
3003 Emergency Operations, 525
3004 Hoistway Venting, 526
3005 Conveying Systems, 526
3006 Machine Rooms, 527
CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, 529
Section
3101 General, 529
3102 Membrane Structures, 529
3103 Temporary Structures, 530
3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels, 530
3105 Awnings and Canopies, 531
3106 Marquees, 532
3107 Signs, 532
3108 Radio and Television Towers, 532
3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and Safety Devices, 532
CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY, 535
Section
3201 General, 535
3202 Encroachments, 535
CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION, 537
Section
3301 General, 537
3302 Construction Safeguards, 537
3303 Demolition, 537
3304 Site Work, 537
3305 Sanitary, 537
3306 Protection of Pedestrians, 538
3307 Protection of Adjoining Property, 539
3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and Public Property, 539
3309 Fire Extinguishers, 539
3310 Exits, 539
3311 Standpipes, 539
3312 Automatic Sprinkler System, 540
CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES, 541
Section
3401 General, 541
3402 Definitions, 541
3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs, 541
3404 Fire Escapes, 542
3405 Glass Replacement, 543
3406 Change of Occupancy, 543
3407 Historic Buildings, 543
3408 Moved Structures, 543
3409 Accessibility for Existing Buildings, 543
3410 Compliance Alternatives, 545
CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS, 555
APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS, 575
Section
A101 Building Official Qualifications, 575
A102 Referenced Standards, 575
APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS, 577
Section
B101 General, 577
APPENDIX C GROUP U-AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS, 579
Section
C101 General, 579
C102 Allowable Height and Area, 579
C103 Mixed Occupancies, 579
C104 Exits, 579
APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS, 581
Section
D101 General, 581
D102 Building Restrictions, 581
D103 Changes to Buildings, 582
D104 Buildings Located Partially in the Fire District, 582
D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District, 582
D106 Referenced Standards, 583
APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, 585
Section
E101 General, 585
E102 Definitions, 585
E103 Accessible Route, 585
E104 Special Occupancies, 585
E105 Other Features and Facilities, 586
E106 Telephones, 586
E107 Signage, 587
E108 Bus Stops, 588
E109 Transportation Facilities and Stations, 588
E110 Airports,589
E111 Referenced Standards, 589
APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING, 591
Section
F101 General, 591
APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION, 593
Section
G101 Administration, 593
G102 Applicability, 593
G103 Powers and Duties, 593
G104 Permits, 594
G105 Variances, 594
G201 Definitions, 595
G301 Subdivisions, 596
G401 Site Improvement, 596
G501 Manufactured Homes, 596
G601 Recreational Vehicles, 596
G701 Tanks, 597
G801 Other Building Work, 597
G901 Referenced Standards, 597
APPENDIX H SIGNS, 599
Section
H101 General, 599
H102 Definitions, 599
H103 Location, 599
H104 Identification, 599
H105 Design and Construction, 600
H106 Electrical, 600
H107 Combustible Materials, 600
H108 Animated Devices, 600
H109 Ground Signs, 600
H110 Roof Signs, 601
H111 Wall Signs, 601
H112 Projecting Signs, 601
H113 Marquee Signs, 602
H114 Portable Signs, 602
H115 Referenced Standards, 602
APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS, 603
Section
I101 General, 603
I102 Definitions, 603
I103 Exterior Openings, 603
I104 Structural Provisions, 603
APPENDIX J GRADING, 605
J101 General, 605
J102 Definitions, 605
J103 Permits Required, 605
J104 Permit Application and Submittals, 605
J105 Inspections, 606
J106 Excavations, 606
J107 Fills, 607
J108 Setbacks, 607
J109 Drainage and Terracing, 607
J110 Erosion Control, 608
J111 Referenced Standards, 608
APPENDIX K ICC ELECTRICAL CODE, 609
INDEX, 637

CHAPTER 1

ADMINISTRATION



SECTION 101
GENERAL

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Building Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as "this code."

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of every building or structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or structures.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International Residential Code.
101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.
101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 101.4.1 through 101.4.7 and referenced elsewhere in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.

101.4.1 Electrical. The provisions of the ICC Electrical Code shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, including alterations, repairs, replacement, equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances thereto.
101.4.2 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the point of delivery, gas appliances and related accessories as covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet connections of appliances and the installation and operation of residential and commercial gas appliances and related accessones.
101.4.3 Mechanical. The provisions of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurtenances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other energy-related systems.
101.4.4 Plumbing. The provisions of the International Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, and where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the International Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to private sewage disposal systems.
101.4.5 Property maintenance. The provisions of the International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures.
101.4.6 Fire prevention. The provisions of the International Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises; and from the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation.
101.4.7 Energy. The provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency.

SECTION 102
APPLICABILITY

102.1 General. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable.

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law.

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or proviSIons.

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is specifically covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public.

SECTION 103
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge thereof shall be known as the building official.

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the building official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the building official. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the International Property Maintenance Code.

SECTION 104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the required inspections, or the building official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.

104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for retention of public records.

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.

104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the building official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used materials which meet the requirements of this code for new materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved by the building official.

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the building official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's representative, provided the building official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of building safety.

104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the building .official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

SECTION 105
PERMITS

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the building official and obtain the required permit.

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual permit for each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing installation, the building official is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.
105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The building official shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the building official as designated.
105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following:

Building:

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square feet (11 m2).
2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high.
3. Oil derricks.
4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or impounding Class I, II or IlIA liquids.
5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2: 1.
6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any I basement or story below and are not part of an accessible route.
7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter tops and similar finish work.
8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater stage sets and scenery.
9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group R - 3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and are installed entirely above ground.
10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or agricultural purposes, not including service systems.
11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings.
12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall that do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the exterior wall and do not require additional support of Group R-3 and U occupancies.
13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, coun- I ters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height.

Electrical:

Repairs and maintenance:
Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles.
Radio and television transmitting stations: The provisions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the installations of towers and antennas.
Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be required for the installation of any temporary system required for the testing or servicing of electrical equipment or apparatus.

Gas:

1. Portable heating appliance.
2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.

Mechanical:

1. Portable heating appliance.
2. Portable ventilation equipment.
3. Portable cooling unit.
4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 'or cooling equipment regulated by this code.
5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its approval or make it unsafe.
6. Portable evaporative cooler.
7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less.

Plumbing:

1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.
2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.
105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the building official.

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety.

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution or metering or other related equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by established right.
105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. Such application shall:

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as required in Section 106.
5. State the valuation of the proposed work.
6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized agent.
7. Give such other data and information as required by the building official.

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.
105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the building official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.
105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.

SECTION 106
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

106.1 Submittal documents. Construction documents, statement of special inspections and other data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each permit application. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require additional construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and other data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.
106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the building official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the building official.

106.1.1.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to indicate conformance with this code and the construction documents and shall be approved prior to the start of system installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9.

106.1.2 Means of egress. The construction documents shall show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and character of all portions of the means of egress in compliance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupancies in Groups R-2, R-3, and 1-1, the construction documents shall designate the number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces.
106.1.3 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. The construction documents shall provide details of the exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, end details, controljoints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around openings.
The construction documents shall include manufacturer's installation instructions that provide supporting documentation that the proposed penetration and opening details described in the construction documents maintain the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as the test procedure used.
106.2 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location of new construction and existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the established street grades and the proposed finished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted.

106.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.

106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the building official issues a permit, the construction documents shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Reviewed for Code Compliance." One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the building official or a duly authorized representative.
106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.
106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.
106.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge.

106.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents be prepared by a registered design professional, the building official shall be authorized to require the owner to engage and designate on the building permit application a registered design professional who shall act as the registered design professional in responsible charge. If the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a substitute registered design professional in responsible charge who shall perform the duties required of the original registered design professional in responsible charge. The building official shall be notified in writing by the owner if the registered design professional in responsible charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the duties.
The registered design professional in responsible charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinating submittal documents prepared by others, including phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building.
106.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions of the design that are not submitted at the time of the application and that are to be submitted to the building official within a specified period.
Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior approval of the building official. The registered design professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the building official.
Documents for deferred submittal items shall be submitted to the registered design professional in responsible charge who shall review them and forward them to the building official with a notation indicating that the deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and been found to be in general conformance to the design of the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be installed until the design and submittal documents have been approved by the building official.

106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the building official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.


SECTION 107
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES

107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause.

107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and general welfare.

107.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of an electric installation before such installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in the ICC Electrical Code.

107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued.

SECTION 108
FEES

108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, electrical, gas,. mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

108.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a permit shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and permanent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valuation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit valuation shall be set by the building official.

108.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the building official that shall be in addition to the required permitJees.

108.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

108.6 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

SECTION 109
INSPECTIONS

109.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

109.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has been filed.

109.3 Required inspections. The building official, upon notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 109.3.1 through 109.3.10.

109.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on the job.
109.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor.
109.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certification required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the building official.
109.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough electrical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are approved.
109.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasteners are taped and finished.

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly or a shear assembly.

109.3.6 Fire-resistant penetrations. Protection of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall not be concealed from view until inspected and approved.
109.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope insulation Rand U values, fenestration U value, duct system R value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment efficiency.
109.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections specified above, the building official is authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety.
109.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see Section 1704.
109.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be made after all work required by the building permit is completed.

109.4 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

109.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

109.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the building official.


SECTION 110
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY

110.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall be made until the building official has issued a certificate of occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction.

110.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of the provisions ofthis code or other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety, the building official shall issue a certificate of occupancy that contains the following:

1. The building permit number.
2. The address of the structure.
3. The name and address of the owner.
4. A description of that portion of the structure for which the certificate is issued.
5. A statement that the described portion of the structure has been inspected for compliance with the requirements of this code for the occupancy and division of occupancy and the use for which the proposed occupancy is classified.
6. The name of the building official.
7. The edition of the code under which the permit was issued.
8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 3.
9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6.
10. The design occupant load.
11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether the sprinkler system is required.
12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building permit.

110.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The building official shall set a time period during which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid.

110.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or completion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.


SECTION 111
SERVICE UTILITIES

111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required, until released by the building official.

111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power.

111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by this code and the codes referenced in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. The building official shall notify the serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter.


SECTION 112
BOARD OF APPEALS

112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the building official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business.

112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are not employees of the jurisdiction.


SECTION 113
VIOLATIONS

113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

113.2 Notice ofviolation. The building official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.

113.3 Prosecution ofviolation. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.

113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.


SECTION 114
STOP WORK ORDER

114.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

114.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.

114.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.


SECTION 115
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT

115.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and ventilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed unsafe.

115.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be tiled on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occupancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition.

115.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the building official shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the order.

115.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed properly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner personally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the owner at the last known address with the return receipt requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure shall constitute service of notice upon the owner.

115.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the restoration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34.

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