59th Annual Edition - Current building costs for residential, commercial, and industrial construction. Estimated prices for every common building material. Provides manhours, recommended crew, and gives the labor cost for installation. Revised annually.
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A complete index begins on page 646
How to Use This Book, 3-5
Abbreviations and Symbols, 6
Craft Codes and Crews, 7-9
Residential Division Labor Cost, 10
Adjusting Labor Costs, 11
Area Modification Factors, 12-15
Credits and Acknowledgments, 16
Residential Division, 17-304
Basement doors, 23
Building permit fees, 28
Cabinets, kitchen, 29
Carpentry, rule of thumb, 32
Carpentry, assemblies, 33
Carpentry, piecework rates, 38
Carpentry, detailed breakdown, 40
Carpentry, finish work, 52
Carpentry, steel, 57
Ceilings, suspended, 79
Concrete work, 84
Doors, jambs, frames, and trim, 104
Electrical work, subcontract, 125
Elevators and lifts, subcontract, 130
Excavation and backfill, 132
Fire sprinkler systems, 147
Framing connectors, 157
Garage doors, 161
Glass, glazing, 163
Gutters and downspouts, 165
Gypsum drywall and accessories, 165
Heating and cooling, 170
Insurance and bonding, 181
Lighting fixtures, 186
Log Home Construction, 189
Lumber and plywood, 191
Markup (Overhead and Profit), 207
Paint removal, lead-based, 230
Paints, coatings, and supplies, 231
Plumbing fixtures and equipment, 242
Plumbing and heating piping, 248
Sheet metal, 265
Construction Economics Division, 306
Industrial & Commercial Division Labor Cost, 308
Industrial and Commercial Division, 309
01 General Requirements, 309-331
02 Existing Conditions, 331-337
03 Concrete, 338-370
Concrete formwork, 339
Reinforcing steel, 345
04 Masonry, 370-382
Reinforcing and flashing, 371
Brick and block walls, 373
05 Metals, 382-388
Structural steel, 382
Steel floor and roof decking, 384
06 Wood and Composites, 389-397
Framing carpentry, 389
07 Thermal & Moisture Protection, 398-412
Thermal insulation, 398
Roof insulation, 399
Membrane roofing, 401
08 Openings, 412-422
Metal doors, 412
09 Finishes, 422-439
Gypsum wallboard, 422
Ceilings and flooring, 428
10 Specialties, 439-448
11 Equipment, 449-470
12 Furnishings, 470-475
13 Special Construction, 475-488
14 Conveying Equipment, 488-491
21 Fire Suppression, 491-496
22 Plumbing, 493-538
Pipe and fittings, 493
Hangers and supports, 516
Valves, pumps, gauges, 518
23 HVAC, 538-544
Gas fired heaters, 541
Hydronic & steam heating, 539
26 Electrical, 544-594
Rigid steel conduit and wire, 546
EMT conduit and wire, 548
PVC conduit and wire, 551
Conduit hangers & supports, 558
Wire and cable, 561
27 Communications, 595-600
31 Earthwork, 602-614
Excavation and backfill, 603
Shoring, bulkheads, piles, 610
32 Exterior Improvements, 615-632
Paving and curbs, 615
Fencing and gates, 623
33 Utilities, 633-645
Pressure water pipe, 634
Drain pipe, 636
This Book Is an Encyclopedia of 2011 Building Costs
The 2011 National Construction Estimator lists estimated construction costs to general contractors performing the work with their own crews, as of mid-2011. Overhead & profit are not included.
This Manual Has Two Parts; the Residential Construction Division begins on page 17. Use the figures in this division when estimating the cost of homes and apartments with a wood, steel or masonry frame. The Industrial and Commercial Division begins on page 317 and can be used to estimate costs for nearly all construction not covered by the Residential Division.
The Residential Construction Division is arranged in alphabetical order by construction trade and type of material. The Industrial and Commercial Division follows MasterFormat™ 2004. A complete index begins on page 646.
Material Costs for each item are listed in the column headed "Material." These are neither retail nor wholesale prices. They are estimates of what most contractors who buy in moderate volume will pay suppliers as of mid-2011. Discounts may be available for purchases in larger volume.
Add Delivery Expense to the material cost for other than local delivery of reasonably large quantities. Cost of delivery varies with the distance from source of supply, method of transportation, and quantity to be delivered. But most material dealers absorb the delivery cost on local delivery (5 to 15 miles) of larger quantities to good customers. Add the expense of job site delivery when it is a significant part of the material cost.
Add Sales Tax when sales tax will be charged to the contractor buying the materials.
Waste and Coverage loss is included in the installed material cost. The cost of many materials per unit after installation is greater than the purchase price for the same unit because of waste, shrinkage or coverage loss during installation. For example, about 120 square feet of nominal 1" x 4" square edge boards will be needed to cover 100 square feet of floor or wall. There is no coverage loss with plywood sheathing, but waste due to cutting and fitting will average about 6%.
Costs in the "Material" column of this book assume normal waste and coverage loss. Small and irregular jobs may require a greater waste allowance. Materials priced without installation (with no labor cost) do not include an allowance for waste and coverage except as noted.
Labor Costs for installing the material or doing the work described are listed in the column headed "Labor." The labor cost per unit is the labor cost per hour multiplied by the manhours per unit shown after the @ sign in the "Craft@Hours" column. Labor cost includes the basic wage, the employer's contribution to welfare, pension, vacation and apprentice funds and all tax and insurance charges based on wages. Hourly labor costs for the various crafts are listed on page 10 (for the Residential Division) and page 308 (for the Industrial and Commercial Division).
Hourly labor costs used in the Industrial and Commercial Division are higher than those used in the Residential Division, reflecting the fact that craftsmen on industrial and commercial jobs are often paid more than craftsmen on residential jobs.
Supervision Expense to the general contractor is not included in the labor cost. The cost of supervision and non-productive labor varies widely from job to job. Calculate the cost of supervision and non-productive labor and add this to the estimate.
Payroll Taxes and Insurance included in the labor cost are itemized in the sections beginning on pages 181 and 284.
Manhours per Unit and the Craft performing the work are listed in the "Craft@Hrs" column. Pages 7 through 9 explain the "Craft@Hrs" column. To find the units of work done per man in an 8-hour day, divide 8 by the manhours per unit. To find the units done by a crew in an 8-hour day, multiply the units per man per 8-hour day by the number of crew members.
Manhours Include all productive labor normally associated with installing the materials described. This will usually include tasks such as:
- Unloading and storing construction materials, tools and equipment on site.
- Moving tools and equipment from a storage area or truck on site at the
beginning of the day.
- Returning, tools and equipment to a storage area or
truck on site at the end of the day.
- Normal time lost for work breaks.
- Planning and discussing the work to be performed.
- Normal handling, measuring, cutting and fitting.
- Keeping a record of the time spent and work done.
- Regular cleanup of construction debris.
- Infrequent correction or repairs required because of faulty installation.
Adjust the Labor Cost to the job you are figuring when your actual hourly labor
cost is known or can be estimated. The labor costs listed on pages 10 and 308
will apply within a few percent on many jobs. But labor costs may be much higher
or much lower on the job you are estimating.
If the hourly wage rates listed on page 10 or page 308 are not accurate, divide your known or estimated cost per hour by the listed cost per hour. The result is your adjustment for any figure in the "Labor" column for that craft. See page 11 for more information on adjusting labor costs.
Adjust for Unusual Labor Productivity. Costs in the labor column are for normal conditions: experienced craftsmen working on reasonably well planned and managed new construction with fair to good productivity. Labor estimates assume that materials are standard grade, appropriate tools are on hand, work done by other crafts is adequate, layout and installation are relatively uncomplicated, and working conditions don't slow progress.
Working conditions at the job site have a major effect on labor cost. Estimating experience and careful analysis can help you predict the effect of most changes in working conditions. Obviously, no single adjustment will apply on all jobs. But the adjustments that follow should help you produce more accurate labor estimates. More than one condition may apply on a job.
- Add 10% to 15% when working temperatures are below 40 degrees or above 95
- Add 15% to 25% for work on a ladder or a scaffold, in a crawl space, in a
congested area or remote from the material storage point.
- Deduct 10% when the work is in a large open area with excellent access and
- Add 1 % for each 10 feet that materials must be lifted above ground level.
- Add 5% to 50% for tradesmen with below average skills. Deduct 5% to 25% for
highly motivated, highly skilled tradesmen.
- Deduct 10% to 20% when an identical task is repeated many times for several
days at the same site.
- Add 30% to 50% on small jobs where fitting and matching of materials is
required, adjacent surfaces have to be protected and the job site is occupied
- Add 25% to 50% for work done following a major flood, fire, earthquake,
hurricane or tornado while skilled tradesmen are not readily available. Material
costs may also be higher after a major disaster.
- Add 10% to 35% for demanding specs, rigid inspections, unreliable suppliers, a difficult owner or an inexperienced architect.
Use an Area Modification Factor from pages 12 through 15 if your material,
hourly labor or equipment costs are unknown and can't be estimated.
Here's how: Use the labor and material costs in this manual without modification. Then add or deduct the percentage shown on pages 12 through 15 to estimated costs to find your local estimated cost.
Equipment Costs for major equipment (such as cranes and tractors) are listed in the column headed "Equipment." Costs for small tools and expendable supplies (such as saws and tape) are usually considered overhead expense and do not appear in the Equipment cost column.
Equipment costs are based on rental rates listed in the section beginning on page 319 and assume that the equipment can be used productively for an entire 8-hour day. Add the cost of moving equipment on and off the site. Allow for unproductive time when equipment can't be used for the full rental period. For example, the equipment costs per unit of work completed will be' higher when a tractor is used for 4 hours during a day and sits idle for the remaining 4 hours. Generally, an 8-hour day is the minimum rental period for most heavy equipment. Many sections describe the equipment being used, the cost per hour and a suggested minimum job charge.
Subcontractors do most of the work on construction projects. That's because specialty contractors can often get the work done at competitive cost, even after adding overhead and profit.
Many sections of this book cover work usually done by subcontractors. If you see the word "subcontract" in a section description, assume that costs are based on quotes by subcontractors and include typical subcontractor markup (about 30% on labor and 15% on material). Usually no material or labor costs will appear in these sections. The only costs shown will be in the "Total" column and will include all material, labor and equipment expense.
If you don't see the word "subcontract" in a section description, assume that costs are based on work done by a general contractor's crew. No markup is included in these costs. If the work is done by a subcontractor, the specialty contractor may be able to perform the work for the cost shown, even after adding overhead and profit.
The General Contractor's Markup is not included in any costs in this book. On page 207 we suggest a 20% markup on the contract price for general contractors handling residential construction. Apply this markup or some figure you select to all costs, including both subcontract items and work done by your own crews.
To realize a markup of 20% on the contract price, you'll have to add 25% to your costs. See page 207 for an example of how markup is calculated. Markup includes overhead and profit and may be the most difficult item to estimate.
Keep In Mind
Labor and Material Costs Change. These costs were compiled in the fall of 2010 and projected to mid 2011 by adding 3% to 6%. This estimate will be accurate for some materials but inaccurate for others. No one can predict material price changes accurately.
How Accurate Are These Figures? As accurate as possible considering that the estimators who wrote this book don't know your subcontractors or material suppliers, haven't seen the plans or specifications, don't know what building code applies or where the job is, had to project material costs at least 6 months into the future, and had no record of how much work the crew that will be assigned to the job can handle.
You wouldn't bid a job under those conditions. And we don't claim that all construction is done at these prices.
Estimating Is an Art, not a science. On many jobs the range between high and low bid will be 20% or more. There's room for legitimate disagreement on what the correct costs are, even when complete plans and specifications are available, the date and site are established, and labor and material costs are identical for all bidders.
No cost fits all jobs. Good estimates are custom made for a particular project and a single contractor through judgment, analysis and experience.
This book is not a substitute for judgment, analysis and sound estimating practice. It's an aid in developing an informed opinion of cost. If you're using this book as your sole cost authority for contract bids, you're reading more into these pages than the editors intend.
Use These Figures to compile preliminary estimates, to check your costs and subcontract bids and when no actual costs are available. This book will reduce the chance of error or omission on bid estimates, speed "ball park" estimates, and be a good guide when there's no time to get a quote.
Where Do We Get These Figures? From the same sources all professional estimators use: contractors and subcontractors, architectural and engineering firms, material suppliers, material price services, analysis of plans, specifications, estimates and completed project costs, and both published and unpublished cost studies. In addition, we conduct nationwide mail and phone surveys and have the use of several major national estimating databases.
We'll Answer Your Questions about any part of this book and explain how to apply these costs. Free telephone assistance is available from 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. California time Monday through Friday except holidays. Phone 760-438-7828 x 2. We don't accept collect calls and won't estimate the job for you. But if you need clarification on something in this manual, we can help.
2011 NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATOR - 59th Edition
Labor & Material Costs, Manhours and City Cost Adjustments for All Residential, Commercial and Industrial Construction
By: Dave Ogershok & Richard Pray
- Assemblies - Carpentry, Concrete, Electrical, Masonry, Plumbing, Roofing
- Cabinets - Corner, Custom, Island, Metal, Utility, Wall, Wood
- Carpentry - Assemblies, Framing, Glu-lam Beams, Moulding, Paneling, Piecework Rates, Sheathing
- Concrete - Beams, Finishing, Forming, Foundations, Pouring, Reinforcing, Slabs
- Cooling - Air Handlers, Chillers, Condensers, Cooling Fans, Cooling Towers, Heat Pumps
- Demolition - Asbestos, Building, Curbs, Flooring, Foundations, Framing, Roofing, Walkways
- Doors - Closet, Colonial, Entrance, Fire, French, Glazed, Screen, Sliding
- Electrical - Breakers, Conduit, Fixtures, Lighting, Panels, Switches, Wiring
- Excavation - By Equipment Type and Hand, Backfilling, Clearing, Grading, Trenching
- Finishes - Acoustical Ceilings, Lath and Plaster, Paint, Wallboard, Wallpaper
- Flooring - Carpet, Composition, Masonry, Tile, Treads and Risers, Vinyl, Wood
- Hardware - Door Closers, Framing Connectors, Locksets, Straps, Weather stripping
- Heating - Baseboard, Ducting, Fans, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Hydronic, Radiant, Steam, Wall
- Insulation - Fiberglass, Foil, Perlite, Polystyrene, Urethane, Vermiculite
- Lumber - Cedar, Fir, Pine, Plywood, Posts, Redwood, Siding, Spruce, Trim
- Masonry - Accessories, Assemblies, Block, Brick, Flagstone, Marble, Pavers, Reinforcing
- Metals - Decking, Joists, Pre-Engineered Buildings, Structural Steel, Trusses
- Pipe - Cast Iron, Concrete, Corrugated Metal, Clay, Ductile Iron, PVC, Transite
- Plumbing - Cleanouts, Drains, Fire Protection, Pumps, Rough-in, Sinks, Tubs, Water Closets
- Roofing - Assemblies, Built-up, Corrugated, Elastomeric, Flashing, Shingles, Slate, Tile
- Site Work - Clearing, Curb and Gutter, Fencing, Irrigation, Landscaping, Paving, Piping
- Windows - Awning, Casement, Double Hung, Louvered Glass, Sliding, Skylights