DeWalt Electrical Professional Reference

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A complete electrical reference library small enough to fit in a toolbox. This unique guide contains tables, charts, graphs, diagrams and terminology relating to the field of electricity that includes: formulas and laws, wire ampacity, conduit and box fill, raceway and wiring specifications, motors, overload protection, transformers, lighting, low voltage, symbols, conversion factors. abbreviations, definitions, materials, tools, and more.


Figuring electrical formulas can get pretty complicated. This amazing little guide is like an encyclopedia that fits in your toolbox, for when you need to reference or double check an on-the-job question. Here you'll find Ohm's laws on power formulas, impedance, AC and DC current. You'll also find power factor formulas, horsepower formulas, voltage drop formulas, circuit characteristics, resistance, inductance, capacitor ratings, fuel cells and batteries, and sizes of panelboards, gutters and wireways, disconnects, pull boxes and junction boxes. You'll find conduit specs, wire specs, grounding electrode conductors, sizes of conduits, couplings, chase nipples and bushings. You'll learn typical wiring methods for communications, labor units for fiber optics; cable selection criteria, common fiber optic connectors, designing motor circuits, DC motors; cost-savings in motor power formulas, motor trouble-shooting, transformer connections, voltage levels, recommended light levels, fluorescent lamp troubleshooting, and much more.

Weight 0.5000
ISBN 978-0-9759709-9-7
Page Count 384
Publisher DeWalt
Dimensions 4 x 6

A complete electrical reference library small enough to fit in a toolbox. This unique guide contains tables, charts, graphs, diagrams and terminology relating to the field of electricity that includes: formulas and laws, wire ampacity, conduit and box fill, raceway and wiring specifications, motors, overload protection, transformers, lighting, low voltage, symbols, conversion factors. abbreviations, definitions, materials, tools, and more.

Figuring electrical formulas can get pretty complicated. This amazing little guide is like an encyclopedia that fits in your toolbox, for when you need to reference or double check an on-the-job question. Here you'll find Ohm's laws on power formulas, impedance, AC and DC current. You'll also find power factor formulas, horsepower formulas, voltage drop formulas, circuit characteristics, resistance, inductance, capacitor ratings, fuel cells and batteries, and sizes of panelboards, gutters and wireways, disconnects, pull boxes and junction boxes. You'll find conduit specs, wire specs, grounding electrode conductors, sizes of conduits, couplings, chase nipples and bushings. You'll learn typical wiring methods for communications, labor units for fiber optics; cable selection criteria, common fiber optic connectors, designing motor circuits, DC motors; cost-savings in motor power formulas, motor trouble-shooting, transformer connections, voltage levels, recommended light levels, fluorescent lamp troubleshooting, and much more.

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CONTENTS

Chapter 1 - Electrical Formulas, 1-1
Ohm's Law/Power Formulas, 1-1
Ohm's Law Diagram and Formulas, 1-2
Power Diagram and Formulas, 1-2
Ohm's Law and Impedance, 1-3
Ohm's Law for AC Current, 1-4
Ohm's Law for DC Current, 1-5
Power Factor, 1-5
Single-Phase Power, 1-5
Three-Phase AC Circuits and The Utilization of Power, 1-6
Wye Connection, 1-6
Delta Connection, 1-6
Four-Wire System, 1-6
Types of Power, 1-7
True Power and Apparent Power, 1-8
Power Factor Formula, 1-8
Power Factor Improvement, 1-9
Volt and Power Ratios vs. Decibels, 1-10
AC/DC Power Formulas, 1-11
Horsepower Formulas, 1-12
Efficiency Formulas, 1-12
Voltage Unbalance, 1-12
Temperature Conversions, 1-12
Voltage Drop Formulas, 1-13
Conductor Length/Voltage Drop, 1-13
Conductor Size/Voltage Drop, 1-13
Formulas for Sine Waves, 1-14
Calculating Root-Mean-Square, 1-14
Locked Rotor Current, 1-15
Maximum OCPD, 1-15
Motor Torque Formulas, 1-16
Gear Reducer Formulas, 1-16
Summary of Series, Parallel and Combination Circuits, 1-17
Circuit Characteristics, 1-18
Resistance, 1-20
Resistors Connected in Series/Parallel, 1-20
Capacitance, 1-21
Capacitors Connected in Series/Parallel, 1-21
Inductance, 1-22
Inductors Connected in Series/Parallel, 1-22
Inductive Reactance, 1-23
Capacitive Reactance, 1-24
Delta and Wye Resistor Circuits, 1-25
Electrical Formulas, 1-26
Transformer Turns Ratio, 1-30
Transformer Inverse Ratio, 1-30

Chapter 2 - Electronics and Electronic Symbols, 2-1
Color Codes for Resistors, 2-1
Standard Values for Resistors, 2-2
Capacitors, 2-2
Color Codes for Capacitors, 2-3
Color Codes for Ceramic Capacitors, 2-3
Standard Values for Capacitors, 2-4
Capacitor Ratings, 2-5
Standard Wiring Color Codes, 2-7
Sine Waves, 2-8
Conductive Leakage Current, 2-8
Programmable Controller Error Codes, 2-9
Wavelengths - Electromagnetic, 2-10
Wavelengths - Mechanical, 2-11
Small Tube Fuses, 2-12
Basic Battery Sizes, 2-13
Fuel Cells and Batteries, 2-14
Characteristics of Lead-Acid Batteries, 2-15
Magnetic Permeability of Some Common Materials, 2-15
Transistor Circuit Abbreviations, 2-15
Radio Frequency Classifications, 2-15
Electronic Symbols, 2-16

Chapter 3 - Raceways and Wiring, 3-1
Typical Power Wiring Color Code, 3-1
Resistivities of Different Soils, 3-1
Bending Stub-Ups, 3-2
Back to Back Bending, 3-3
Offset and Saddle Bends, 3-4
Ampacity of Lamp and Extension Cords, 3-5
Enclosures, 3-5
Hazardous Locations, 3-5
Enclosure Types, 3-6
Sizes of Panel boards, 3-8
Sizes of Gutters and Wireways, 3-8
Sizes of Disconnects, 3-8
Sizes of Pull Boxes and Junction Boxes, 3-8
Busway or Busduct, 3-9
Switchboards or Switchgears, 3-9
CB's and Fuses, 3-9
Electrical Cable Class Ratings, 3-10
Cable Insulation Moisture Ratings, 3-10
Conductor Prefix Codes, 3-10
Types of Conductors, 3-11
Junction Box Calculations, 3-14
Box Fill, 3-15
Conductor Volume Allowance, 3-15
Insulated Conductor Dimensions, 3-16
Rigid Metallic Conduit - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-18
Liquidtight Flexible Metallic Conduit - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-20
Non-Metallic Tubing - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-22
Electrical Metallic Tubing - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-24
Flexible Metallic Conduit - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-26
Rigid PVC Schedule 40 Conduit - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-28
Rigid PVC Schedule 80 Conduit - Maximum Number of Conductors, 3-30
Wire Data - Standard Stranded Conductors, 3-32
Copper Wire Specifications, 3-33
Comparative Weights of Copper and Aluminum Conductors, 3-34
Copper Bus-Bar Data, 3-35
Voltage Drop Using Ohms Law, 3-36
Calculating Branch Circuit Voltage Drop in Percent, 3-36
Voltage Drop Formulas, 3-37
Conductor Length/Voltage Drop, 3-37
Conductor Size/Voltage Drop, 3-37
Voltage Drop Ampere-Feet, 3-38
Wire Length vs. Wire Size (Maximum Voltage Drop), 3-39
Copper Wire Resistance, 3-40
Voltage Drop Table, 3-41
Ampacities of Copper Conductors (3), 3-42
Ampacities of Copper Conductors (1), 3-44
Ampacities of Aluminum and Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors (3), 3-46
Ampacities of Aluminum and Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors (1), 3-48
Ampacity Adjustments for 4 or More Conductors in a Cable or Raceway, 3-50
Amperage Ratings for Single Phase Service or Feeder Conductors in Normal Dwelling Units, 3-50
Minimum Size Conductors for Grounding Raceway and Equipment, 3-51
Grounding Electrode Conductors - AC Systems, 3-52
Conduit and Tubing - Allowable Area Dimensions for Wire Combinations, 3-53
Designed Dimensions and Weights of Rigid Steel Conduit, 3-56
Dimensions of Threads for Rigid Steel Conduit, 3-56
Designed Dimensions and Weights of Couplings, 3-57
Dimensions of 90-Degree Elbows and Weights of Nipples Per Hundred, 3-57
Approximate Spacing of Conduit Bushings, Chase Nipples and Lock Nuts, 3-58
Approximate Sizes of Conduits, Couplings, Chase Nipples and Bushings, 3-60
Dimensions and Weights of Electrical Metallic Tubing, 3-61
Dimensions of 90-Degree Elbows, 3-61
Expansion Characteristics of PVC Rigid Non-Metallic Conduit, 3-62
Support Spacing for Rigid Metal Conduit, 3-62
Support Spacing for Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit, 3-62

Chapter 4 - Communications, 4-1
Types of Data Networks, 4-1
Standard Configurations for Several Common Networks, 4-1
Maximum Attenuation of Category 3, 4, and 5 Cabling, 4-2
Worst Pair Next Loss at Specific Frequencies, 4-2
Ethernet 10Base- T Straight Thru Patch Cord, 4-3
Ethernet 10Base- T Crossover Patch Cord, 4-3
Minimum Separation Distance From Power Source at 480V, 4-4
ISDN Connections, 4-4
Common Telephone Connections, 4-5
Color-Coding of Cables, 4-5
Twisted-Pair Plugs and Jacks, 4-6
Standard Phone Jacks, 4-6
Pin Connectors, 4-7
Cross Connections, 4-7
Category Cabling, 4-7
Installation Requirements, 4-7
Conductors Entering Buildings, 4-8
Circuit Protection, 4-8
Interior Communications Conductors, 4-9
Standard Telecom Color Coding, 4-10
25-Pair Color Coding/ISDN Contact Assignments, 4-11
66 Block Wiring and Cable Color Coding, 4-12
ISDN Assignment of Contact Numbers, 4-14
Typical Wiring Methods, 4-15
Modular Jack Styles, 4-16
Common Wiring Configurations, 4-16

Chapter 5 - Fiber Optics, 5-1
Typical Optical Budgets, 5-1
Maximum Vertical Rise Distances, 5-1
Fiber Optic Connectors Data Communication Styles, 5-1
Telephone and High Performance Styles, 5-2
Typical Bandwidth - Distance Products, 5-2
Optical Cable Jacket Materials, 5-2
NEC Classifications for Optical Cables, 5-3
Common Fiber Types, 5-4
Comparison of Laser and LED Light Sources, 5-5
Comparison of Buffer Types, 5-5
Indices of Refraction, 5-5
Transmission Rates-Digital Telephone, 5-5
Mismatched Fiber Connection Losses (Excess Loss in db), 5-6
Power Levels of Fiber Optic Communication Systems, 5-6
Detectors Used in Fiber Optic Power Meters, 5-6
Fiber Optic Testing Requirements, 5-6
Typical Cable System Faults, 5-7
Optical Cable Crush Strengths, 5-7
Most Common Causes of Failures in Fiber Optic Lans, 5-7
Fiber Optic Labor Units, 5-8
Fiber Optic Safety Rules, 5-8
Cable Selection Criteria, 5-9
Maximum Recommended Installation Loads, 5-9
Fiber Optic Data Network Standards, 5-9
Fiber Types and Specifications, 5-9
Common Fiber Optic Connectors, 5-10

Chapter 6 - Motors, 6-1
Designing Motor Circuits, 6-1
Motor Control Circuits, 6-2
Wye-Wound Motors, 6-4
Tips On Selecting Motors, 6-5
Squirrel Cage Motors, 6-6
Wound-Rotor Motors, 6-7
Synchronous Motors, 6-8
DC Motors, 6-9
Summary of Motor Applications, 6-10
Motor Frame Dimensions, 6-14
Motor Frame Table, 6-18
Motor Frame Letters, 6-20
Types of Enclosures, 6-21
Insulation, Temperature, 6-21
Shaft Coupling Selections, 6-22
V-Belts/Motor Size, 6-23
Typical Motor Efficiencies, 6-24
Common Service Factors, 6-25
DC Motor Performance Characteristics, 6-26
Maximum Acceleration Time, 6-26
Small Motor Guide, 6-27
Three-Phase Motor Requirements, 6-28
Direct Current Motor Requirements, 6-29
Motor Torque (Inch-Pounds), 6-30
Horsepower to Torque Conversion, 6-33
1-115V Motors and Circuits - 120 V System, 6-34
1-230V Motors and Circuits - 240 V System, 6-35
3-230V Motors and Circuits - 240 V System, 6-37
3-460V Motors and Circuits - 480 V System, 6-40
DC Motors and Circuits, 6-43
Control Ratings, 6-46
Standard Motor Sizes, 6-49
Full-Load Currents - DC Motors, 6-50
Full-Load Currents - 1, AC Motors, 6-50
Full-Load Currents - 3, AC Induction Motors, 6-51
Starting Methods: Squirrel Cage Induction Motors, 6-52
Nema Ratings of 60hz AC Contactors, 6-53
Setting Branch Circuit Protective Devices, 6-54
Maximum OCPD, 6-55
Standard Sizes of Fuses and CB's, 6-55
Locked Rotor Current, 6-56
Motor Power Formulas-Cost Savings, 6-57
Typical Motor Power Factors, 6-58
Efficiency Formulas, 6-58
Voltage Unbalance Formula, 6-58
Voltage Variation Characteristics, 6-59
Frequency Variation Characteristics, 6-59
General Effect of Voltage Variation On Direct Current Motor Characteristics, 6-60
General Effect of Voltage and Frequency Variation On Induction Motor Characteristics, 6-61
Heater Trip Characteristics, 6-62
Heater Selections, 6-63
Heater Ambient Temperature Correction, 6-66
Heating Element Specifications, 6-67
Direct Current Motor Troubleshooting Guide, 6-69
Shaded Pole Motor Troubleshooting Guide, 6-71
Split-Phase Motor Troubleshooting Guide, 6-72
Three-Phase Motor Troubleshooting Guide, 6-75
Contactor and Motor Starter Troubleshooting Guide, 6-77
Faulty Solenoid Problems, 6-79
Motor Maintenance Checklists, 6-81
Motor Repair and Service Record, 6-84

Chapter 7 - Transformers, 7-1
Transformer Connections, 7-1
Transformer Sound Levels, 7-7
Transforming Winding Ratios, 7-7
Satisfactory Voltage Levels, 7-7
Single-Phase AC Motors - Full-Load Amperes, 7-8
Three-Phase AC Motors - Full-Load Amperes, 7-9
Single-Phase Transformers - kVA Rating/Amperes, 7-10
Three-Phase Transformers - kVA Rating/Amperes, 7-11
RF Coil Winding Formulas, 7-12
Turns per Inch vs. Wire Size, 7-13
Common Transformer kVA Ratings, 7-14

Chapter 8 - Electrical Plan Symbols, 8-1
General Symbols, 8-1
Lighting Outlets, 8-3
Receptacle Outlets, 8-4
Switch Outlets, 8-7
Signaling System Outlets for Institutional, Commercial and Industrial Occupancies, 8-9
Signaling System Outlets for Residential, 8-14
Panel boards, Switchboards and Related Equipment, 8-15
Bus Ducts/Wireways/Remote Controls, 8-16
Circuiting Symbols, 8-17
Electric Distribution, 8-18
Arrester, Lighting Arrester Gap Symbols, (Electric Surge), 8-20
Battery Symbols, 8-21
Circuit Breakers, 8-22
Circuit Return Symbols, 8-24
Contactors, 8-25
Circuit Condition Designations, 8-26
Parallel-Line Contactors, 8-27
Operated Contactors, 8-28
Generator, Motor and Winding Symbols, 8-29
Applications for Direct Current, 8-30
Alternating Current Motor Symbols, 8-34
Transmission Path, Junction Path and Polarity Symbols, 8-35
Switches, 8-37
Transformers, 8-38
Transformer Winding Connection Symbols, 8-41
Motor Controls, 8-43
Meter and Instrument Symbols, 8-47

Chapter 9 - Lighting, 9-1
Recommended Light Levels, 9-1
Lamp Ratings, 9-1
Lamp Advantages and Disadvantages, 9-2
Lamp Electrical Efficiency, 9-2
Common Incandescent Lamps, 9-2
Common Fluorescent Lamps, 9-3
Ballast Sound Rating, 9-3
HID Lamp Operating Characteristics, 9-3
Lamp Characteristics Summary, 9-3
HID Lamp Troubleshooting Guide, 9-4
Incandescent Lamp Troubleshooting Guide, 9-5
Fluorescent Lamp Troubleshooting Guide, 9-5
Lamp Identification, 9-7
Ballast Loss, 9-8
Recommended Ballast Output Voltage Limits, 9-9
Recommended Short-Circuit Current Test Limits, 9-10
Light Source Characteristics, 9-11
Fundamental Lighting Calculations, 9-12

Chapter 10 - Conversion Factors and Units of Measurement, 10-1
Common Conversion Factors, 10-1
Electrical and Common Prefixes, 10-6
Common Electrical Quantities, 10-6
Conversion Table, 10-6
Electrical Abbreviations, 10-7
Conversion Table for Temperature, 10-8
Decibel Levels of Sounds, 10-10
Sound Awareness and Safety, 10-11
Trigonometric Formulas, 10-12
Decimal Equivalents of Fractions, 10-16
Common Engineering Units and Their Relationship, 10-17
Commonly Used Geometrical Relationships, 10-18

Chapter 11 - Materials and Tools, 11-1
Strength Gain vs. Pull Angle, 11-1
Length of Wire Cable Per Reel, 11-1
Sheet Metal Screw Characteristics, 11-2
Standard Wood Screw Characteristics, 11-3
Allen Head and Machine Screw Bolt and Torque Characteristics, 11-4
Hex Head Bolt and Torque Characteristics, 11-5
Whitworth Hex Head Bolt and Torque Characteristics, 11-7
Metric Hex Head Bolt and Torque Characteristics, 11-8
Tightening Torque in Pound-Feet-Screw Fit/Screw Torques, 11-9
Standard Taps and Dies, 11-10
Taps and Dies-Metric Conversions, 11-11
Recommended Drilling Speeds, 11-12
Torque Lubrication Effects, 11-13
Metalworking Lubricants, 11-13
Types of Soldering Flux, 11-14
Hard and Soft Solder Alloys, 11-14
Properties of Welding Gases, 11-15
Welding Rods - 36" Long, 11-15
Cable Clamps Per Wire Rope Size, 11-16
Types of Fire Extinguishers, 11-17
Pulleys and Gears/Sizing, 11-18
Standard "V" Belt Lengths, 11-20
Melting Point and Relative Conductivity of Different Metals and Alloys, 11-22

Chapter 12 - Glossary, 12-1

Preface

Many years ago I was asked to create a compendium of tables, charts, graphs, diagrams and terminology relating to the field of electricity. Electrical Reference was my first endeavor to create a pocket guide for the electrical marketplace that would serve as an all encompassing publication in a new user-friendly format. I ended up utilizing a design and typeface that holds the most information per page while at the same time making a particular topic quick to reference.

Information covered in this manual is necessary for anyone in the field to have in one's possession at all times. Naturally, a topic may have been overlooked or not discussed in depth to suit all tradespeople. I will constantly monitor and update this book on a regular basis to not only include requested additional material, but to add new material from the ever growing amount of high technology as it develops.

Best wishes,
Paul Rosenberg

THE DEWALT TRADE REFERENCE SERIES

A complete line of reference books designed for the professional to increase productivity, reduce downtime, and get the job done right.

The DEWALT Electrical Professional Reference is one of the most comprehensive resource guides available and is a vital tool for anyone working in the industry. It contains valuable, time-saving information on:

  • Formulas and Laws
  • Wire Ampacity
  • Conduit and Box Fill
  • Raceways and Wiring Specifications
  • Motors
  • Overload Protection
  • Transformers
  • Lighting
  • Low Voltage
  • Symbols
  • Conversions
  • Abbreviations
  • Definitions
  • Materials
  • Tools and more
Other titles available in the DEWALT Trade Reference Series include:
  • Blueprint Reading
  • Lighting & Maintenance
  • Construction
  • HVAC/R
  • Plumbing
  • Residential Remodeling
  • Datacom & Repair
  • Wiring Diagrams
  • Construction Estimating