DISCOUNTED - BOOK EXTERIOR/COVER MAY HAVE COSMETIC DEFECTS - ONLY A FEW LEFT IN STOCKThis is not only a great study guide filled with sample electrician's exam questions, but it teaches you how to quickly turn to the code section that answers the questions. Most electrician's exams give you about 2 minutes per question - not enough time to browse through 800 pages of fine print looking for each answer. This manual, based on the 2008 and 2011 NEC editions, explains how the Code is organized, so you understand where the information you need is located. Then it shows how to rearrange and tab your copy of the Code to streamline your search efforts. Next, you learn a step-by-step search procedure, in which you're shown how to analyze the question to determine its subject, know where to look in the index, find the exact article, then turn right to the Code section that answers your question.
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Table of Contents
- Overview, 5
Reorganizing Your Code Book, 6
About the National Electrical Code, 6
Understanding the Meanings, 8
- Using the NEC, 11
How to Read a Code Section, 12
Article 230, Services, 13
Finding Information in the NEC, 14
Do Your Research, 15
Review Questions, 16
- Special Occupancies, 19
Hazardous Locations, 19
Class I, 20
Class II, 21
Class III, 22
Article 504, 22
Article 505, 23
Articles 511 through 517, 23
Review Questions, 24
- Installing Electrical Equipment, 27
Article 110, 27
NEC Tables, 28
Correction Factors, 29
Adjustment Factors, 29
Conductor Properties, 30
- Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers, 33
Motor Control Equipment Terminology, 34
Motor Circuits, 37
Motor Circuit Conductors, 40
Motor Overload Protection, 42
Review Questions, 44
- Grounding and Bonding, 47
Purpose of Grounding, 47
History of Grounding Requirements, 48
Building Blocks of Grounding, 49
Article 90.1, 49
Electrical Grounding or Earthing a System, 50
Article 250, Grounding, 52
Safety Aspect of Grounding, 54
- Box Fill, 59
Table 314.16(A) Metal Boxes, 60
NM Clamps, 60
Fixture Support Fittings, 60
Equipment Grounding Conductors, 63
Volume Displacement, 64
Pull and Junction Boxes, 65
Review Questions, 65
- Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Equipment, 67
Article 440 Requirements, 67
Practice Exam Questions
Part One: General, 71
Part Two: Grounding and Bonding, 77
Part Three: Motor, 83
THE JOURNEYMAN ELECTRICIAN'S PREPARATION & STUDY GUIDE was originally written by Bob Norris, a California electrician, for people studying to become licensed electricians. Until a few years ago, many states required only an electrical contractor to be licensed. Now, most states require anyone doing electrical work to be state licensed or certified.
While most states require electricians to be licensed, each state has its own licensing requirements. So, if someone is licensed in another state, they must usually be tested and certifi ed in that state in order to work within the state. If you have questions about licensing or certifi cation requirements, go to http://craftsman-book.com, scroll down to Craftsman Websites and in the drop-down list, click on Contractors-License.org.
In addition to becoming licensed as a General Journeyman Electrician, you can test to become certified in the following electrical fields: Residential Journeyman Electrician, Fire/Life/Safety Technician, Voice, Data, Video Technician, and Nonresidential Lighting Technician.
The electrical portion of most states' Certifi cation Examination for a General Journeyman License is largely based on the National Electrical Code (NEC), published by the National Fire Protection Association in Quincy, Massachusetts. The Code's purpose is to enforce safety in all aspects of electrical work. A new edition of the NEC is published every three years, but each jurisdiction across the country decides for itself which edition to adopt. Few keep abreast - most change only every second or third edition, so in 2011, although a 2011 NEC has been published, more jurisdictions are still following the 2008 NEC. To study for your electrician's exam, you need to find out which edition of the NEC you'll be tested on.
This study guide is designed as an aid to that primary reference. It'll help you become familiar with important subject areas in the NEC that you'll be referring to over and over - not just for the exam, but as a working electrician. We'll be reviewing NEC definitions, working clearances, branch circuit requirements, equipment grounding, conductor ampacities, box fill requirements, motor and control requirements, load calculations, tables, and many other rules regarding the safe use of electric power.
The answers provided are based on the last two editions of the NEC; the 2008 and the 2011. In most cases, it makes no difference, as drastic changes in requirements for a safe installation are rare. In the majority of cases, the changes are in the numbering of NEC articles, where a provision has been added or expanded and so all the following article numbers in that section are moved up. Where this is the case, we have specified the article numbers for each code edition.
As you study, you'll be referring to the NEC constantly, and will find yourself becoming comfortable with it. This study guide and your NEC will give you the educational background and the tools you need to successfully pass your state Certification Examination and receive your General Journeyman License.
Reorganizing Your Code Book
The Electrician's Exam is a timed examination. Every second counts. I encourage you to rearrange your NEC so you can quickly and easily find the answers you need on the exam. It'll also be helpful when you're on the job and need to know a Code requirement - you won't be wasting time thumbing through hundreds of pages to find it.
To make the most of this study guide and the NEC, you'll need a loose-leaf copy of the NEC edition adopted in your jurisdiction, and a red pen to mark important sections in the Code. Both loose-leaf and bound editions of the NEC are available from the NFPA.
If you have a bound copy of the NEC, you can convert it to a loose-leaf version. Take it to your local copy shop and ask them to remove the spine and drill holes through the pages so they'll fit into a regular three-ring binder. I recommend 5/16-inch holes, since they bind less than smaller-sized holes.
Rearrange and Tab Your NEC Pages
I found it helpful to rearrange the pages in your NEC so the Index and the Contents are together. You'll be using both, so having them in the same place saves constantly flipping from the back to the front of the book. Simply take the Index pages, beginning on page 785 in the 2008 and 830 in the 2011 NEC, and place them in the front of the book, right after the Contents. In the 2011 edition, the back of the first page of the Index has text, so photocopy it and replace it so your book is complete.
Now, take C3-50 tabs (found in stationery stores) and mark the chapter numbers, articles, tables, etc., on them for reference. When you've decided which sections of the NEC you'll be referring to most often, mark those pages with tabs as well. This will make it easier to study for your exam.
About the National Electrical Code
You must understand that the National Electrical Code was designed and intended for use by experienced electrical contractors, inspectors, qualified electricians and electrical engineers. The NEC isn't intended as an instructional manual. It's a set of rules, enforced by law, for the purpose of the practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity. To remain current, recommended changes to the NEC are evaluated yearly by a special panel, and included in the next edition.
The History of the NEC
The National Electrical Code (Volume 70 of the National Fire Protection Agency) has been sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) since 1911, and is considered the best electrical code standard in use today. It's not only used throughout most of the United States, but in many countries around the world.
The first electrical code was written by the National Association of Fire Engineers in 1897 and, since then, has been published, edited, and revised on a regular basis. One of the rules initially adopted governing electrical installation actually prohibited intentional grounding of electrical systems. It was believed that intentional grounding increased fire danger. In later years, as grounding became better understood, authorities began to allow, then to require, grounding.
The National Fire Protection Association has many standards besides the NFPA-70 (our National Electrical Code) related to the electrical industry. These standards are in effect only where local legal jurisdictions have adopted them. See NEC Annex A after Chapter 9 Tables, for more information about product standards.
Data for various NEC requirements is sometimes derived from research for other NFPA standards. Committees and panels responsible for the NEC often confer with technical experts responsible for other NFPA standards. NEC rules must correlate with other NFPA standards.
Learning About the NEC
Learning to read and understand the NEC is like learning a foreign language. You need to understand the basic structure of the language, study the words, and how those words are used in phrases, as well as the pronunciation. Having learned the basics, you try your hand at communicating, but at first, all you can manage are short phrases because you don't know how to put the words together in a complete sentence. For that, you need to study the rules and understand the subtle nuances of the language - and then practice.
So, like learning a foreign language, understanding the terms, principles, and layout of the NEC takes hours of study. Seeing how all the segments work together, from one section to another, isn't easy. But perhaps the most difficult of all is grasping the subtle meanings in the Code rules themselves. Simply said, the rules in the Code aren't spelled out as well as we'd like them to be. There are thousands of different applications of electrical installations, but no application has a Code rule specific to it alone. Let's begin our study of the Code by looking at words and phrases.
Understanding the Meanings
Some words and phrases used in the NEC may be foreign to you. But it's imperative you understand the meanings of terms like grounding conductor, grounded conductor, and neutral conductor, for example. If you don't understand the terms being used, you'll never understand the Code itself.
Article 100 Definitions
Reading the definitions in Chapter 1, Article 100, is a great place to start learning about the Code and its wording. Once you have a grasp of how a word or phrase is used, you'll better understand it when you come across it in a Code reference. Keep in mind that the Code's meaning isn't always in the technical words, but often in how those words are used. A variation in the simplest wording can change the entire meaning of an Article. A change of one word might mean alternate choices for equipment or wiring methods. Or, it could signify that additional measures must be taken to comply with the safety requirements. Don't overlook simple wording. It could be the key that unlocks the door to the intent of the rule.
Electricians have their own slang words and phrases, but you won't find these in the NEC. That poses a problem when you're just learning the Code. I try to use the correct code terms in this book so you'll know the rules as they're written in the NEC. If you become comfortable and familiar with the proper terms, you won't need to use slang.
Putting the Words to Work
The idea behind developing the Code was to help explain how certain things work the way they do. For example: How does a GFCI work? Why can't an individual current-carrying conductor be installed in a metal raceway? Why can the protection for a 20-amp conductor feeding a motor be protected with 40-amp protection? Why can't a 15-amp single receptacle be installed on a 20-amp circuit? How can a bird rest on an energized power line and not be electrocuted? When you learn how and why elements of an electrical system work, you'll better understand the Code - and you'll be able to easily answer these questions.
Today, just about anyone installing, repairing or maintaining electrical systems must be licensed and certified by the state where they're doing the work. That means they have to learn the rules and regulations that apply to electrical installations, and pass a state exam.
The primary reference for all state certification examinations is the National Electrical Code and this study guide is designed as an aid to the 2008 and the 2011 editions -- the Codes currently adopted in most jurisdictions.
You'll constantly refer to the NEC while studying with this guide. Using practice questions provided, you'll learn how to analyze each question so you know exactly what to look for in the Code. You'll become familiar with the Code's organization, and will learn to use the proven tips and shortcuts demonstrated to turn quickly to the exact section, article and table you need for each question. While others taking the exam waste precious minutes hunting through pages, you'll be speeding through, with time at the end to check your answers. You'll learn the Code rules and terminology so you understand the language and requirements of this important standard, including:
- The organization of the NEC
- How to find information
- NEC definitions
- Special occupancies
- Zone classifications
- Working clearances
- Service installations
- Branch circuit requirements
- Equipment grounding
- Bonding requirements
- Conductor ampacities
- Box fill requirements
- Motor and control requirements
- Load calculations
- Safety requirements
At the end of the book are three practice exams, each with 20 multiple-choice questions, and a separate answer sheet that shows you how to look up each question in the Code. Keep testing yourself till you get them all, in record time.
With this study guide and your NEC, you'll have the skills, the knowledge and the tools you need to pass the your state's certification examination and receive your General Journeyman Electrician's License.
Bob Norris, after completing his IBEW apprenticeship and serving in the Navy as an electrician's mate, worked as a journeyman electrician for several years, then as a successful electrical contractor in California for 35 years.
After retirement, Bob moved to Oregon to teach classes for the local IBEW and private industry. He has written several self-study courses and tests, and has assisted in writing many of the state's Electrical Licensing Exams. Eventually, he returned to California to continue teaching in both union and non-union settings.
Lester McDonald has been in the electical field for over 32 years. As a Class II Master Electrician, he works on both residential and commercial projects. He is a Certified Home Inspector and is also trained and certified in HVAC systems, allowing him to use his diverse skills in a variety of work situations within the construction industry.
Lester lives and works in Georgia and has been a member of the IBEW throughout his career.