Operating Techniques for the Tractor-Loader-Backhoe Revised

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This revised edition of a classic operation manual explains standard machine operations for the tractor-loader-backhoe. How to work with weight distribution, momentum, pitch of slope, and center of gravity.



It covers all the important issues of safety and maintenance. Then it delves into the work -- how to dig around utilities, plan jobs, as well as set-up techniques, grading and compaction techniques, trenching procedures, loading material, clearing land, and demolition methods.



This practical book is filled with illustrations, photos, and sample tests you need to help you master practically all the techniques and usages of this versatile machine.

Weight 2.3100
ISBN 0-911785-01-9
Page Count 298
Author Gary Ober
Publisher Equipment Training Resources
Dimensions 8-1/2 x 11

This revised edition of a classic operation manual explains standard machine operations for the tractor-loader-backhoe. How to work with weight distribution, momentum, pitch of slope, and center of gravity.

It covers all the important issues of safety and maintenance. Then it delves into the work -- how to dig around utilities, plan jobs, as well as set-up techniques, grading and compaction techniques, trenching procedures, loading material, clearing land, and demolition methods.

This practical book is filled with illustrations, photos, and sample tests you need to help you master practically all the techniques and usages of this versatile machine.

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Table of Contents

1. TLB Dimensions & Stability, 1
General, 1
Weight Distribution, 2
Bulldozer, 3
Skiploader, 3
TLB, 3
Universal Forces and Principles, 4
Weight, 5
Motion, 5
Work Motion Cycle, 5
Momentum, 6
Pitch of Slope, 7
General Slope Information, 8
Percent, 8
Ratio, 8
Degrees, 9
Ratio, 9
Percent, 9
Downhill Force - Force Down the Plane, 10
Traction, 11
Friction, 12
Center of Gravity, 13
Important Factors Relating to Center of Gravity, 18
Weight of Materials and COG, 20
Effect of Slopes on COG, 21
Altering Dimensions, 21
Truck Loading, 23
Attachments, 24
COG Wrapup, 25
Summary, 25
Questions - Chapter 1 TLB Dimensions, 26

2. Machine Control, 33
Mental requirements, 33
Physical Requirements, 33
Machine Controls, 34
Machine Response, 35
Dimensions, 35
Mechanical Response, 35
Older Machines, 36
Loader Control, 37
Brakes, 37
Danger Areas, 37
On the Job, 39
Loader Summary, 39
Hydraulic Control, 40
Backhoe Control, 40
Backhoe Controls - 4-lever system, 40
Backhoe Controls - 3-lever system with foot swing, 41
Backhoe Controls - 2-lever system with "JD" pattern, 42
Backhoe Controls - 2-lever system, excavator, 43
Practice Exercises, 46
Questions - Chapter 2 Machine Control, 48

3. Safety, 53
#1 Accident, 53
Safe Clothing, 53
SeatBelt, 54
Keep Your Machine Clean, 54
Safety Systems, 54
Lock-out Safety Devices, 55
Parking Safety, 55
Worker Safety, 55
General TLB Safety, 56
Backhoe Accidents, 58
TLB Accidents, 58
Rollover, 59
Excavations, 60
Excavation Safety, 61
Shoring, 62
Sloping, 62
Spoil Quantities - Shoring vs. Sloping, 63
Transporting Wheeled Machinery, 66
Conclusions, 66
Questions - Chapter 3 Safety, 68

4. Maintenance, 73
Operation and Maintenance Manual, 73
Machine Components & Systems, 74
Engine, 74
Oil, 75
Air, 75
Fuel, 76
Pre-Cleaner, 76
Primary Filter, 76
Secondary Filter, 76
Greasing, 77
Warm-Up and Cool down, 79
Machine Life, 79
Bucket Changing Tips, 80
Questions - Chapter 4 Maintenance, 84

5. Utilities, 89
One Call System, 90
The Limitations of the One Call System, 92
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, 92
How to Proceed with the Job, 93
The "Four Stages of Alert", 94
Keys to Pipe Detection, 94
Variables That Determine Pipe Breakage, 95
Investigating Possible Utility Lines, 96
Working Range of the TLB When Locating Utilities, 96
Digging Around Utilities, 97
Questions - Chapter 5 Utilities, 101

6. Planning the Job, 107
Placement of Spoil, 108
Layout, 108
Precision Job Layout, 109
Job-Planning Tips, 109
Questions - Chapter 6 Planning the Job, 110

7. Set-up, 113
Tripod Setup, 115
The Pivot Method, 116
Precision Set-up, 117
Set-Up Techniques, 120
Conclusion, 122
Questions - Chapter 7 Set-up, 123

8. Footings, 127
Precision, Skill, Concentration, 127
Footing Types, 127
Layout, 128
Precision Digging, 129
Elevation Importance and Checking Methods, 129
Laborer Involvement, 132
Checking the Grade, 133
Questions - Chapter 8 Footings, 139

9. Job Site Cleanliness and Cleanup, 143
Shuttle Operations, 144
Spoil Removal, 144
Importance of Excavation Cleanliness, 145
Cleanup, 145
Questions - Chapter 9 Cleanliness and Cleanup, 153

10. Grading and Compaction, 157
Required Skills, 157
Grading Techniques, 157
Loader Grading Techniques, 157
Cutting, 159
Filling, 160
Fine Cutting Techniques for Hard Ground, 161
Finish Grading, 163
Backhoe Grading Techniques, 168
Compaction, 171
Wheel Rolling, 172
Jetting, 173
Compaction Attachments, 175
Questions - Chapter 10 Grading and Compaction, 177

11. Backhoe Techniques, 181
Purpose of the Excavation, 181
General Trenching Procedure, 182
Extendable Dipperstick Procedure, 184
Soft Ground Conditions, 186
Hard Ground Conditions, 186
Stabilizer Usage and Technique, 187
Digging Near a Wall or Fence, 188
Digging Against A Wall, 191
Specialized Job Tasks, 192
Tunneling, 192
Potholing, 194
Cribbing, 196
Cribbing Technique - Railroad Applications, 196
Loading Trucks with the Backhoe, 197
Material Handling, 200
Handling Long Material, 200
Land Clearing Procedures, 202
Clearing Techniques, 202
Stump Removal, 204
How to Dig an Arc, 205
Tooth Grab Method, 207
Crossing Trenches, 212
Connecting Trenches, 214
Questions - Chapter 11 Backhoe Techniques, 215

12. Loader Techniques, 221
Principles of Operation, 221
Stability, 224
Filling the Bucket, 225
Soft Material, 227
Hard Material, 230
Loading Trucks, 230
Stockpiling, 233
Ramp Stockpile, 233
Related Techniques, 235
Shuttle Operations, 238
Safety, 242
Related Techniques, 242
Questions - Chapter 12 Loader Techniques, 247

13. Demolition, 251
Preparation and Planning, 252
Efficiency of Job Completion, 252
Stockpiling, 252
Material Separation, 253
Backhoe Techniques, 253
Prying Method, 254
Concrete Breaking, 255
Roll-Out Method, 255
Breaking Technique, 256
Positioning Pieces for Breaking, 256
Loading Techniques, 257
Loading with the Backhoe, 257
Picking Up the Pieces, 258
Natural Back-up, 259
Positioning the Bucket, 261
No Back-up Technique, 263
Lifting and Swinging, 264
Loading with the Loader, 266
Questions - Chapter 13 Demolition, 271

Appendices
Appendix A - Natural Gas Dangers, 275
Appendix B - Glossary, 277
Appendix C - Index, 280
Appendix 0 - Answer Key, 285
ETR Product Guide, 297
ETR Order Form, 298

Introduction

The tractor-loader-backhoe (or "TLB" as I'll call it here) is a highly versatile, productive piece of equipment. It's ideal for most of the trenching that's done on a building site. It's perfect for loading soil and heavy objects into a truck. It handles light demolition well. And, of course, it backfills trenches and does minor grading much faster than could be done by hand.

What You Need to Know

This book isn't a technical manual. And it doesn't cover any particular type of TLB. The various manufacturers have all the technical manuals you'll need on the equipment they manufacture and sell. Nor does this book recommend one brand of TLB over any other. They're all good. What this book does is explain in the most concise and direct way possible what you should know for safety and productivity of the TLB. Without this information, you may not be aware of the potential for accidents, and the safety hazards that can cause serious damage to people or property.

I've written this book for both the beginning and the experienced operator. It begins with the basics, of course. But there's plenty of useful information in later chapters for even veteran operators. And I've never met an operator who couldn't learn a little more or get rid of a few bad habits. Certainly I haven't stopped learning about the TLB. In fact, during the writing and illustrating of this revised edition, my own knowledge has been stretched into new areas of understanding, and that information is presented in this book for all to learn from. This highly technical information has been distilled into easy to understand terms, and generously illustrated for your ease of understanding and for safe operation of these machines in the future.

Steps Toward Your Goal

As you read through the first chapters, you may feel that my descriptions seem to cover a series of unrelated subjects and procedures. Be patient and learn these important principles as they are presented. As you read further, you will notice that each bit of information becomes a part of a larger process.

Later sections of this book emphasize the more technical aspects and difficult job situations, such as: tight work space, working around utilities, precision excavation and many more complicated tasks. Although many jobs do not demand the highest degree of operating skills, mastering the machine provides safety as well as the necessary skills to do precision work.

Learn the more demanding tasks and everything else will seem like a piece of cake. That's why I've emphasized techniques and work procedures that cover "worst-case" situations.

Get Started Right

A word to beginners: There's no substitute for practice, practice and more practice. Just reading this book isn't enough. It's practicing what you've learned here that makes you an expert. With time, operating a backhoe safely and productively will become as natural to you as driving a car or tying your shoe.

And don't be discouraged when you run into difficulty. The TLB is among the most difficult pieces of heavy equipment to operate. There are two reasons: First, it's really two machines in one, with separate controls and operating principles for each. Second, the TLB is used for so many different tasks and procedures, that there's a lot to learn. No matter how experienced you are, there's always another job yet to be attempted and mastered. And remember, it is the operator's job to find an intelligent, safe, workable solution to the job at hand.

Instructors, please note...

The Answer Key on pages 285-296 is perforated for easy removal, if desired. If you choose to remove these pages, please return them to the students at the end of the course as they are an excellent review of the material.

IMPORTANT

These machines are commonly called on for wide range of tasks, procedures, and applications. Because of these wide ranging uses, I have used terminology that will convey the exact thought of the author to the reader.

When "TLB" is used in this book, I am referring to the machine in general.

When the word loader is used in this book, I am referring to the machine being used as a loader, moving on the site and using the loader bucket to perform work. The machine could be grading, leveling, moving material, or loading trucks.

When the word backhoe is used in this book, I am referring to the machine being used as a backhoe, with the stabilizers down and the machine in a set position.

The Modern Tractor-Loader-Backhoe has become the most useful machine in general construction, and it has gained that reputation since its introduction in the late 1950s. This reputation as the "most useful" is due to the wide-ranging tasks that the machine is capable of performing. These wide-ranging jobs, in turn, demand that operators have the knowledge, skills, and experience required for safety and productivity.

The first edition of this book, Operating Techniques for the Tractor-Loader-Backhoe, published in 1983, was written simply as an information source covering standard machine operations and procedures. Over the years, training programs sought it out for its practical and detailed information. This Revised Edition has been greatly expanded to provide even more detailed information for operators and training programs, such as: the physics of operation, machine control guidelines, safety considerations, and preventing damage to existing utilities.