This completely revised book clearly explains how to install rough and finish wiring in new construction, alterations, and additions. From basic electrical theory to advanced wiring methods to comply with the 2008 National Electrical Code.
Here you'll find complete instructions on troubleshooting and repairs of existing wiring. Hundreds of drawings and photos show you how to plan and install wiring to code. Includes demand factors, circuit loads, and the formulas you need. Every subject is referenced to the 2008 National Electrical Code, and there are 21 pages of the most needed NEC tables to help your wiring pass inspection the first time.
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1. Electrical Energy, 7
Historical Introduction, 7
The Composition of Matter, 8
Formation of Molecules, 10
Static Electricity, 12
Current Electricity, 13
Ohm's Law, 14
Watt's Law, 16
Electrical Measurements, 18
Basic Electrical Circuits, 20
Effects of Electrical Energy, 22
Test Questions, 24
2. Distribution of Alternating Current, 27
DC Sources, 27
Magnetic-Mechanical Generation, 28
Induction and AC Generation, 32
Power in an AC Circuit, 42
Test Questions, 45
3. Tools and Safety, 47
Conventional Hand Tools, 47
Electrician's Hand Tools, 49
Power Tools, 52
Test Instruments, 54
Basic Wiring Techniques, 57
Test Questions, 61
4. Conductors, 63
Wire Materials, 67
Wire Size, 69
Color Code, 74
Test Questions, 77
5. Grouped Conductors, 79
Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable, 79
Service Entrance Cable, 81
Underground Feeder Cable, 81
Armored Cable, 84
Flexible Metal Conduit, 85
Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit, 86
Rigid Metal Conduit, 87
Electrical Metallic Tubing, 88
Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit, 90
Surface Metal Raceways, 90
Surface Nonmetallic Raceways, 91
Multioutlet Assembly, 91
Test Questions, 92
6. Electrical Boxes, 95
Metal Boxes, 95
Single Gang Boxes, 96
4- inch Square Boxes, 99
Multiple Gang Boxes, 100
Cut-in Boxes, 101
Octagon Boxes, 101
Weatherproof Boxes, 102
Plastic Boxes, 104
NEC Box Regulations, 105
Number of Conductors Permitted, 105
Entrance of Conductors into Boxes, 108
Test Questions, 110
7. Wiring Switch Circuits and Outlets, 113
Switch Types, 113
Wiring Switch Circuits, 117
Wiring 3-way Switch Circuits, 120
Switch/Outlet Combinations, 127
Test Questions, 132
8. Plans, 135
Types of Plans and their Uses, 137
Floor Plan Symbols, 139
Design of the Electrical System, 140
Convenience Outlets, 140
Lighting Requirements, 144
Branch Circuits, 150
Cable Plans, 164
Wiring Diagrams, 165
GFCI Circuits, 174
Service Load Computation, 178
Sizing the Service Entrance, 182
Test Questions, 183
9. The Service Entrance, 185
Overhead Service Entrance, 185
Underground Services, 189
Meter Box, 190
Breaker Box, 191
Grounding Electrode System, 194
Overcurrent Protective Devices, 196
Circuit Breakers, 199
Test Questions, 200
10. Rough Wiring, 203
Nonmetallic Cable, 203
BX Cable, 208
Flexible Metal Conduit, 210
Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit, 212
Electrical Metallic Tubing, 212
The Conduit Bender, 214
Surface Raceways, 219
Identifying Rough Wiring, 219
Test Questions, 221
11. Finish Wiring of New Work, 223
Light Fixtures, 231
Breaker Box, 234
Test Questions, 236
12. Additions and Alterations to Old Work, 239
Framing Types, 239
Concealing Additions/Alterations, 243
Exposed Additions/Alterations, 248
Test Questions, 252
13. Troubleshooting and Repairs, 255
Light Fixtures, 265
Checking New Wiring, 271
Test Questions, 274
14. Supplementary Systems, 277
Signaling and Warning Systems, 277
Entertainment Systems, 284
Test Questions, 287
Answers to Chapter Questions, 289
This book was written for anyone who intends to make a living wiring residential buildings. If you can understand and follow the instructions in this manual, you should have no trouble installing safe, modern, efficient electrical systems in homes and apartments.
As an electrician, you need to know how to use a wide variety of tools and materials. This manual describes the tools that should be in every electrician's tool box, and suggests how they can be used to best advantage. I'll also explain what you should know about electrical materials: wire, cable, conduit, fixtures, boxes, switches, breakers and panels. There's a correct tool and a right material for every purpose. Sometimes selecting the right tools and materials isn't easy. After reading this book, you should have little trouble choosing both tools and materials appropriate for the work you do.
This manual isn't a book of electrical theory. But every professional electrician needs some background on how electricity is generated and distributed. And, of course, you should know how Ohm's Law and Watt's Law are used to design electrical systems. The first two chapters cover these important subjects.
If you've worked as an electrician for some time, you know that nearly everything an electrician does is governed by the National Electrical Codeï¿½. For our purposes, the only right way is the code way. Until you're comfortable with the code, doing everything the code way can be a nuisance. Once you understand the code and the reasons for code requirements, you may have a different perspective. Most experienced electricians would agree that the NECï¿½ protects everyone (including electricians and electrical contractors) and is a good guide to professional practice - even if the building inspector didn't enforce it.
This book will help you follow the code. But it isn't a substitute for the NEC. Every professional electrician needs a copy of the current code. Many bookstores sell the NEC, or you can order a copy from this publisher, using the order form bound into the back of this book. But just having the current NEC isn't enough. Many cities and counties don't adopt the model code exactly as published by the National Fire Protection Association. Instead, they supplement the code with amendments or changes that will be enforced on jobs in that city or county. Once you have the current NEC, ask at your local building department about amendments or changes that apply in that jurisdiction. Keep those changes with your copy of the code.
I'll explain floor plans, cable plans and wiring diagrams in detail. This is important information for every electrician. The code has a lot to say about types of outlets, spacing of outlets, what must be switch-controlled and what need not be switch-controlled. The work you do will have to follow the plans and comply with the code. The information in this book should help you understand and follow plans prepared for your jobs.
Finally, I'll explain how to diagram the circuits you're likely to find in a home or apartment. As a teacher of electrical wiring for many years, I've found that a student who can diagram a circuit correctly has a reasonably good chance of wiring it correctly as well. And a student who can't diagram a circuit probably can't install it either!
Now let's get down to business - what you need to know to wire homes and apartments.
Residential Wiring to the 2008 NEC
It's one thing to install wiring that will carry power from the service entrance to outlets, switches and equipment throughout a home. But that's not enough. The wiring also has to give safe, trouble-free service and pass inspection. That means it has to comply with the latest National Electrical Code.
Here you'll find the basics of residential wiring -- your complete guide to
installing wiring the right way.
You'll learn about:
The author explains what every electrician needs to know about electricity -- how to select the right material, how to follow the plans, the types and spacing of outlets, and permissible loading on general purpose circuits.
This book is for anyone who wants to make a living wiring houses, but who is new to or rusty on current rules and theory for electrical work. Emphasis is on what the 2008 NEC allows, and how to avoid the errors new electricians often make. Includes over 20 pages of the 2008 NEC tables that you'll need and use the most.
Each chapter includes a set of multiple-choice questions based on that chapter. Test yourself to see if you need to back and review any of the material.
New in this edition: (CD not available with eBook) a CD-ROM with the Interactive Study Center -- the Q & A in the book in fun-to-use interactive testing software. Click on your answer and choose either an instant response or a grade at the end of the entire test. More like playing a video game than studying, so you'll study more, do better on any state electrician's exam, and be better-equipped for the job.
Also on the CD: the compete book in PDF form. (CD not available with eBook) Use your computer's easy-search feature to take you directly to the information you need. You can even e-mail diagrams or installations instructions directly from the file to a worker on the job.
Jeff Markell worked for over 30 years as a licensed general contractor in residential and commercial construction, and is author of several technical manuals.
As an instructor of electrical wiring to apprentice electricians, he looked for a practical manual that would supply the hands-on instructions they needed to install wiring that complies with the latest NEC. Finding none, he wrote this one.