Imagine being able to build or retrofit a home so that it stays comfortable during all seasons without an energy bill.
Seems too good to be true, yet some builders are doing just that – and this unique book explains how. Here are tips and techniques you can apply to increase energy efficiency to the maximum level: double-framed walls; furred-out and insulated walls, attic and roofing systems; super window glazing, utilizing thermal mass; photovoltaic panels; solar hot water systems; heat pumps; and much more.
The book chronicles the projects of contractors who build and retrofit homes with the aim of achieving comfort and energy-efficiency while maintaining exterior appearances that are true to the neighborhood or the original style of the home. It covers homes built or retrofitted in different locales throughout the U.S., and explains the regional problems each builder faced in increasing energy-efficiency, and how they overcame those problems to achieve a zero-energy, or close to zero-energy home.
Filled with full-color drawings, diagrams and photos, this book can help you develop new ways of providing your customers with what may have seemed to be a pipe dream of energy savings. Now you, too, can build zero-energy homes at affordable prices – with a little creativity and innovation. This book shows you how.
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Introduction: The Case for Zero Energy Houses, 2
1. The Building Envelope, 10
Building Science 101, 11
Learning from the Passive House Movement, 18
The Diversity of Framing Practices, 26
Attic and Roofing Systems, 31
Insulation Choices and Strategies, 35
Testing the Building, 38
Putting It All Together, 41
Case Study: High Heat, 42
Case Study: A Butterfly Home in the City, 50
Case Study Outside-In Retrofit, 58
2. Passive Solar Design, 64
Passive Solar in the 1970s, 69
The Design Process, 71
Choosing Glazing, 73
Thermal Mass, 74
Solar Shading, 77
Principles of Passive Solar Design, 78
Case Study: PassivHaus Retrofit, 82
Case Study Bringing 1887 into the 21 Century, 88
Case Study. Target Zero House in Taos, 96
3. Renewable Energy, 102
From Sunlight Alone, Clean Electricity, 104
Harnessing the Power of the Wind, 118
Making Hot Water with the Sun, 126
Sizing a Renewable Energy System, 134
Look at All the Renewable Energy Options, 136
Case Study: The Good Life in Vermont, 138
Case Study: The Next West House, 146
Case Study: High-End Lakeside Retrofit, 154
4. Heating, Cooling, and Ventilations, 164
Options for Heat, 168
Heat Pumps Provide Both Heating and Cooling, 168
Electric-Resistance Heat Can Work in a Net Zero House, 176
Wood and Other Forms of Biomass, 180
Getting Heat Around the House, 183
Keeping the House Cool, 186
Ventilation for a Healthy House, 188
Heating Water, 191
Case Study: A Solar Jewel in Boulder, 194
Case Study: Reinventing the High Rise, 202
Case Study: All-Electric House: $1.16 a Day
5. Living a Zero Energy Life, 218
It's Just Not Low Energy Bills, 221
Gaining a New Appreciation for Energy, 222
Mechanical Systems Are More Complicated, 225
Fighting the Perceptions of High Cost, 226
Marketing the Zero Energy House, 228
A House That's Also a Classroom, 232
Case Study: Affordable Housing Meets Zero Energy, 233
Energy Modeling Software, 242
Air Changes per Hour: 50 Pascals of Pressure, 243
The Case for Zero Energy Houses
The petroleum economy bared its teeth in 2008, and it wasn't pretty. In mid-July, the cost of a barrel of crude oil reached an all-time high of $147, a 50 percent increase in just 7 months and a threefold jump in 3 years. A few months later, as the world economy too a nosedive, prices dropped to less than $60 a barrel and gas prices dipped to hearly $2 a gallon. Heating oil customers in the Northeast who had locked in a winter's worth of fule at more than $4.70 a gallon looked wistfully at a cash price of less than $2.20. It was the most recent upheaval in our fossil fuel economy, and it almost certainly won' t he the last.
The cost of oil has a huge impact on every corner of the economy. in part
because we continue to use so much of the stuff. Americans manage to burn more
than 20 million barrels of petroleum products a day; about 12 million barrels of
that is imported, making us the world's largest consumer. Until a few years ago,
that didn't seem to matter. Oil was relatively cheap, and the Arab oil embargo
of the 1970s was long forgotten. Now it matters a great deal as the developing
world competes for a bigger share
of this limited resource.
All of this affects how much we pay for energy. But the cost of fuel oil or
gasoline looks like small potatoes in comparison with the environmental
consequences of burning the enormous quantities of oil, natural gas, and coal we
pull from the earth. Climatologists link an increase in atmospheric greenhouse
gases to a steady rise in average global temperatures and a variety of climate
changes, some of which may prove catastrophic. Carbon dioxide, a by-product of
burning hydrocarbons, is an especially noticeable culprit. Glaciers are melting.
Weather patterns are changing, bringing bigger, more frequent storms to some
regions and droughts and high temperatures to others. High energy costs and a
lack of potable water could make some parts of the globe very difficult places
to live in the future. Worse, climate changes are occurring faster than
scientists had predicted
only a few years ago.
What does building houses have to do with any of this? A lot. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 40 percent of all primary energy consumed in the United States and 70 percent of the electricity produced by U.S. power plants goes directly to commercial and residential buildings. By some estimates, buildings are responsible for 48 percent of the carbon released into the atmosphere.
This is where sustainable building first found a toehold. Using less energy for heating and cooling makes houses less expensive to live in while reducing their environmental impact. Other fundamentals of green building help buildings last longer, give them healthier interiors, and helped reduce the natural resources needed to construct them. People got it Green building has prospered. As we write this, green building is just about the only good news in the building industry.
The question is whether these gains will be good enough in a world where oil can cost $100 a barrel in January and $147 in July. There are other issues. How much will fossil fuels cost over the life of a house? How do we keep housing affordable on a monthly basis if utility bills approach the cost of the mortgage?
The Next Step: Net Zero
Net zero and near net zero homes take the goals of sustainable building one step further. But just what is a zero energy house?
Not too long ago, a house that used 60 percent less energy than one built to code was called a near zero house. That was quite an accomplishment. A house that was this energy efficient could be constructed mostly with conventional materials and techniques but with more attention to details, such as air sealing and insulation. Builders and architects got to thinking that going way beyond code might give them a market advantage.
Today, building standards are getting tougher., and there are many labels for super-efficiency. There are zero energy homes, net zero homes carbon neutral homes, and off-the-grid homes. What are we talking about here?
The simple definition is that a net zero energy building produces as much energy as it uses on an annual basis. This includes energy for heating, cooling, and all the devices that plug into the wall. Net zero houses are typically connected to a local electric utility. They use the grid for storing excess electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or a wind turbine, banking electricity at times of plenty and drawing on the surplus when production falls.
A house in a cold climate might need more energy than it makes during the winter but then makes up for it in summer when demand is lower and the photovoltaic system is running at full tilt. The opposite may be true in the south, where high humidity in the summer requires more electricity for air-conditioning during peak months. But on average, zero energy
houses produce enough energy to offset the high-load months.
Most grid-tied homes are built where the local utility offers net metering. That means the utility will buy electricity at the same price it charges, but usually only until the net is zero. If houses produce more than that, the utility may buy it back. If so, it is often at the wholesale price, which can be as little as 1 or 2 cents per kilowatt hour when the retail price is 10 or 12 cents per kilowatt hour. That makes those excess electrons produced very expensive. In Germany, the government has imposed rates on utilities, forcing them to pay roughly 50 cents per kilowatt hour as an incentive to building owners to produce more electricity than they use.
Off-the-grid houses must provide all the electrical energy its occupants need, summer and winter. Other than relatively small battery banks, there is no place to store energy. The house is truly self-sufficient. For decades, a handful of builders around the country have experimented with off-the-grid approaches in different climates. They have taken very diverse as to get to the end goal. Most often what makes the house self-reliant are changes in lifestyle for the families that live in them. Electricity goes on a budget. There is a fixed amount of energy available for any given day. If someone wants to take a hot shower, it has to be on a day with plenty of sun. If you want toast in the morning, maybe you can't use the hair dryer. Most Americans aren't willing to adjust their lifestyles that radically.
Houses also can be designed to produce enough energy to offset the embodied
energy in all the building materials plus the energy required to build the
house. This means the house must produce more energy than it uses on a
yearly basis. Roughly 8 percent of a home's energy use is embodied energy from
producing and transporting the building materials used in its construction. This
is sometimes called regenerative architecture, and it has a deep ethical vein
running through it.
A carbon-neutral home uses a different metric to determine how to get to zero. More than just zero energy, it must be zero carbon emissions all the way back to the power plant or manufacturing facility that made the building products in the first place. On average, getting electricity from a power plant to a house is at best 30 percent efficient. From a carbon-neutral standpoint, the electricity used from the grid has to be repaid with three times more site-generated electricity to break even. The same holds true for building materials. If the marble tile in the foyer is from Italy. the energy produced at the house has to be sufficient to make up for the embodied energy from extraction and transportation of the marble. The utility buy-back policy also dictates the financial context for this approach. Adherents to carbon-neutral houses are insistent on using only local materials and simple solutions to getting to zero energy. The more complex the house, the more diverse the sources of the materials and the more energy needs to be produced.
Size also comes into the net zero discussion. Some say a 10,000-sq.ft. home
can never be sustainable. It is just too big and energy and material intensive.
How can a family of four need so much space when in developing countries 10
families would inhabit a house that size? Communities such as Marin County in
California and Aspen in Colorado penalize houses that
exceed a prescribed maximum square footage. The larger the house, the more energy efficient it must be until finally, at a certain size, code drives the design. Aspen allows a homeowner to buy his or her way out of this problem by putting money into a fund that pays for solar collectors on homes of police officers, firemen, and teachers. The result in net carbon may be the same in this Robin Hood approach to reducing carbon emissions.
But let's keep it simple. For the purposes of this book, net zero or zero energy means the house makes as much energy as it uses over the course of a year.
Building Houses a New Way
Regardless of the term we use, builders are realizing opportunity in this upside-down market by building homes that provide financial security for their customers. By minimizing utility bills or even creating the potential for the home to make money by selling energy to the utility at some point in the future, zero energy homes offer a new direction for housing in America. It is a win for the homeowner, for the planet in aggregate, and for a new generation of builders who will be able to construct houses that better meet future energy challenges.
This book includes a collection of case studies of zero energy or near zero energy houses from across the country, along with a description of the techniques and materials used to construct them. The builders, architects, remodeling contractors, and homeowners we spoke with aspire to reach that magical point of energy self-sufficiency. Some got closer than others. . -
In any case, it is a journey of exploration into new approaches to the task of building meticulous, energy-efficient houses. Achieving the goal isn't as much the focus as is how they got there, how much it cost, what the options were, and what lessons builders learned along the way. When we started, we'd heard of a few net zero projects. At each interview we learned of a few more. We are starting to see a wave of interest from all parts of the country.
Building a real net zero house is more than investing an arm and a leg in photovoltaic panels or buying a big wind generator. Reducing the amount of energy needed to heat and cool the house is the essential consideration, and that means a tight, well-insulated building envelope and more awareness on the part of homeowners about their energy use. Investing in energy-efficient appliances and lighting fixtures, eliminating phantom electrical loads, and orienting the house to take advantage of sunlight all cut the demand for electricity and fossil fuels.
But even taking all of these steps won't necessarily get a house all the way to the land of net zero. Much more realistic are near net zero homes. These houses also are designed to drastically reduce the amount of energy they use, which we'll explore in the following chapters, but they fall somewhat short of producing all the power they use. Many of the builders talked about the 80/20 rule; 80 percent of the load reduction can cost only 20 percent more than a standard house, but the last 20 percent can mean an additional 80 percent of the incremental cost. This is hardly a failure. What if all new houses in the United States used 90 percent less energy than what we use now? Even 80 percent less? The impact would be immense.
There are scores of builders all over the United States and Canada who are constructing houses like these. A general public clamor for better energy performance has helped and so have a variety of public and private programs that promote zero energy construction. In Massachusetts, there is the governors Zero Net Energy Buildings Task Force, announced at the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association's 2008 building energy conference. Architecture 2030, created by architect Edward Mazria. is pressing for changes in building design and construction that will make all buildings in the United States carbon neutral by 2030. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), the California Energy Commission, and a variety of other public agencies have launched their own initiatives.
Building a net zero house can get expensive, but its not necessarily so. In New York City, for example, architect Chris Benedict specializes in multifamily buildings that use a fraction of the energy that a conventional building of the same size would consume. Benedict is able to accomplish this without the use of any renewable energy systems and at a cost no greater than conventional construction. A net zero Habitat for Humanity house near Denver, Colorado, was built for $116 a square foot (see the photo below). Near net zero houses built under the Habitat program in Tennessee have energy costs of about $1 per day. It's not just a game for the well heeled.
There is no single path toward energy self-sufficiency, nor are we arguing that building net zero houses will magically solve the worlds energy or climate problems. But one house at a time, one neighborhood at a time, is how green building became mainstream. Building houses that are energy self-sufficient is completely within our capabilities—not at some distant point in time, but right now.
Toward a ZERO ENERGY Home
A "zero energy" home—a home that produces as much energy as it consumes—is an idea whose time has come. By reducing or eliminating utility bills, zero energy homes offer a new direction for housing in America. It is a win for the homeowner, for the planet, and for a new generation of builders who are building houses that better meet the energy challenges ahead of us all.
With unequaled knowledge and a passion for the subject, authors David Johnston and Scott Gibson explore the design and construction of energy self-sufficient houses from start to finish and feature 12 houses that were built for zero energy living.
About the authors: A leader in the green building movement, David Johnston is the author of Green from the Ground Up and founder of greenbuilding.com and whatsworking.com. His approach to green building has been embraced by building professionals, municipalities, homeowners, and sustainability advocates nationwide. Scott Gibson, coauthor of Green from the Ground Up, is a freelance writer and longtime contributing editor to Fine Homebuilding magazine.